Adobe Acrobat Files

I recommend using Acrobat to print out these pages.  A link to Acrobat files (pdf files) can be found at the beginning of each section.  This is perhaps time-consuming but results in good, edited manuscripts with all of the figures and with higher resolution than the html files.

If you do not already have Acrobat Reader you can download it gratis by clicking on the Adobe icon. in "book form".

March 2008:  I have mounted an updated PDF collection containing most of the files. I have included sugars4kid as a "tail-hang".   You can download it here.  Use "bookmarks" to find points of interest.  NB: The section concerning use of fructose by spermatozoa has been rewritten.  Pluck it up at the September 2008 update (*).

Use "bookmarks" as a table of contents.  You can also save a copy and add your own bookmarks. is under steady editing and additions come often.  Check the "Updates" for new and revised chapters. 


April 2008.  The section on muscle metabolism has been partially updated..  The acrobat file is here.

*September 2008.   The section concerning "Carbohydrate Metabolism" has been corrected in regard to utilization of fructose by spermatozoa.  Please pick up the corrected PDF file here.

December 2008    A "primer", Diabetes for All, An Introduction to Metabolism and Diabetes was mounted.  This is aimed at the general public.  Download the PDF file by clicking here.

May 2009  Another primer, You, Me and Energy has been mounted.  Again, this is aimed at the general public.  You can download the PDF file by clicking here.

December 2009

 Homeostasis 2 (an introduction to insulin and glucagon) has been slightly modified.  The new PDF file can be downloaded here.

January 2010

The PDF file "Insulin's Mechanism of Action" has been updated.  You can download it by clicking here

February 2014d

I have updated the section on "Newer approaches to treatment of type 2 diabetes".  The corrected PDF file can be downloaded here.

November 2014

Perhaps the most exciting development in diabetes research during the past decade is the observation that oxidative stress reduces insulin synthesis.  Furthermore, that thioredoxin (TRX) and thioredoxin reductase maintain a balance between oxidized and reduced elements in the synthetic system. TRX is inhibited by thioredoxin-reacting protein (TXNIP) and is a important factor in development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.  Synthesis of TXNIP is inhibited by Verapamil, an old and well known drug used to reduce hypertension, offering a possible cure for some types of diabetes.  Click here for more information. 

Printing from Microsoft Explorer or Netscape

Best printing results  are obtained using the PDF files. Both text and figures will be downloaded and printed.

One can print from the html pages.  To print a desired html page, click somewhere in the text and then "print preview" in the browser banner.  You should see the page you wish to print.  If not, go to the window in the print preview page banner where you find the choices "as laid out on the screen", "all frames individually" and "only the selected frame".  Choose the last possibility.  You should now see the page you want.  Click print.  Figures are unfortunately "clipped" often here.  Use Acrobat and the *.pdf files to get good copies.