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A note about printing sections or a
complete copy of medbio.info.
Links to Medical Literature, Textbooks and
Websites for students and physicians:
Diabetes and Endocrinology
Medscape is perhaps the world's leading source for medical
news and up-to-date information. This section is dedicated to the control of metabolism and
related illnesses. Many other areas are available. New users must register;
this is gratis.
Professor Michael W. King's extensive site for
medical students. Features a beautiful "interactive text book" highlighting most of
the elements of medical
What do I eat; what should I
A summary of a study of physician's personal diets from
Medscape entitled "What Docs Eat, What They Need to Know" with
evaluations of a "normal" American diet and 8 of the commonly recommended
"healthy" alternatives. Both advantages and short-comings are presented
such that these can be explained to non-professionals.
here to go to this site. NB: You must be registered with Medscape to use
Emerging therapeutic targets
This "web collection" from
Nature Reviews Endocrinology (February 2014) covers important recent
research and literature concerning this very prevalent disease. Some new
therapeutic targets have emerged during the past decade and are discussed here.
A "must" for both practitioners and researchers. Click
here to call up this site.
AMPK, the major regulator of
AMP-activated protein kinase
(AMPK) has long been known to be a critical controller of metabolism. It
is regulated allosterically by adenine nucleotides and through phosphorylation
by hormone-activated upstream kinases. A special issue of Molecular and
Cellular Endocrinology "AMPK and the endocrine control of metabolism" was
published in January 2013. Eleven excellent review articles covering
AMPK's control of insulin secretion, liver, muscle and adipose metabolism and
appetite regulation in the hypothalamus
can be called up here.
Management of Hyperglycemia in type 2
Diabetes, a new Position Statement from the ADA and EASD, October 2012.
There have come many new
pharmacological agents and life-style suggestions for control of type 2 diabetes
during the past few years. The American Diabetes Association and the
European Association for the Study of Diabetes have published a new position
statement regarding these various methods of treatment.
Click here to
call up that publication.
2012: American College of Physicians,
"Metformin should be the initial drug of choice for treatment of type 2
The ACP has recently published
guidelines for pharmacotherapy treatment of diabetes type 2 when changes in
lifestyle are insufficient to control blood sugar levels. After a rigorous
analysis of the effects of newer agents, the organization strongly recommends
metformin as the initial drug of choice. A detailed summary of the
original article can be reached by
here. Note that you must have registered with Medscape to view the
article. Registration is gratis.
Updated USDA Dietary Guidelines Released
Updated guidelines for maintaining correct body weight and good health were
posted in January.
Click here for a
concise summation of these. NB: You must have a Medscape
membership to open this file. Membership is free and quickly established.
2009: An Unfinished Journey: Molecular Pathogenesis
to Prevention of Type 1A Diabetes, George S.
Eisenbarth give us essential insight into the
genetically determined autoimmune initiation of type
1 diabetes. This has been an area of confusion
for me and many others. We have long been
aware of the fact that the immune response
responsible for destroying beta cells is genetically
determined and yet, type 1 diabetes is less
connected to the genetic picture than type 2
diabetes. This lecture goes a long way in
explaining the causes of diabetes and the
possibilities of a future "cure".
Click here to download this lecture.
Metabolic Regulation, a Human Perspective, Keith N. Frayn; 2nd ed., 2003,
Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.
Pocket Atlas of Nutrition,
H. K. Biesalski and P. Grimm; 3rd ed., 2004,
New York, N. Y.
These two books are concise
and, at the same time, give excellent overviews of our anatomy, physiological
functions, and energy requirements throughout life.
Frayn's book is a joy to read.
It gives an up-to-date insight into our metabolism and the factors controlling
this. The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of our daily live are most
clearly explained with just the right degree of details. The Pocket Atlas of Nutrition, in spite
of its title, gives an unusually rich insight into our functions and combines
anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in a series of detailed but clear diagrams
and good texts. Distribution of nutrients in food sources is extremely
well documented as are bodily requirements from birth to old age. Good
balanced arguments for and against supplements are presented.
Sorry, no links here. You
must go to a book shop or library to thumb through these references.